The problem is complicated by the presence of insidious generals, who vote not only in favour of a suboptimal strategy, but also selectively. For example, if nine generals vote, four of whom support an attack, while four others are in favour of withdrawal, the ninth general may send a withdrawal vote to these generals in favour of withdrawal and one vote to attack the rest. Those who have obtained a withdrawal vote from the ninth general will withdraw while the rest will attack (which may not be good for the attackers). The problem is further complicated by the fact that generals must be physically separated and send their votes through messengers who might not vote or falsify false votes. The Byzantine margin of error can be reached if loyal (non-defective) generals have a majority agreement on their strategy. It is possible to indicate a default voting value for missing messages. For example, missing messages may . If the agreement is that the votes s majority, a pre-assigned standard strategy can be used (z.B.  To generate a coin at random, assign each player an entire number in the zone [0.n-1] and each player must not select his own id at random, as each player chooses pk `displaystyle P_`k` for each player P_ a random number s k i displaystyle k`i`i` and distributes it with a verifiable scheme.
A Byzantine error (also an interactive consistency, a congruence of sources, an avalanche of errors, a Byzantine agreement problem, a Byzantine genetic problem and a Byzantine failure) is a condition of a computer system, especially distributed computer systems, where components can fail and contain imperfect information about component failure. The term has its name from an allegory, the “Bizantin General`s problem”, designed to describe a situation in which the players in the system must agree on a concerted strategy to avoid a catastrophic failure of the system, but some of these actors are unreliable. What is the Byzantine margin of error? The Byzantine Margin of Error (BFT) is the characteristic of a distributed network to reach consensus (agreement on the same value), even if some network nodes do not respond or react with false information. The objective of a BFT mechanism is to protect system failures by using collective decision-making (correct and erroneous nodes) to reduce the influence of defective nodes. BFT derives from the problem of Byzantine generals. Imagine that several divisions of the Byzantine army are stored outside an enemy city, each division is commanded by its own general. Generals can only communicate with each other by messenger. After observing the enemy, they must opt for a common action plan. However, some generals may be traitors who try to prevent loyal generals from reaching an agreement. The generals must decide when they attack the city, but they need a large majority of their army to attack at the same time. Generals must have an algorithm to ensure that (a) all loyal generals decide on the same plan of action, and (b) a small number of traitors cannot lead loyal generals to adopt a bad plan.
The general faithful will do everything the algorithm says, but traitors can do whatever they want. The algorithm must guarantee the condition (a) regardless of what the traitors do. Not only should loyal generals agree, but they should agree on a reasonable plan. The objective of the Byzantine margin of error is to protect against system component failures, with or without symptoms, preventing other components of the system from reaching an agreement if such an agreement is necessary for the system to function properly.